The Biopsychosocial Model is a very important step in medical care as it broadens the scope with which health and illness can be examined in clinical practice. Possibly the most general biopsychosocial illness is that caused by excess stress, that term used to describe situations in which individuals are faced with environmental or other demands which exceed their immediate ability to cope Lazarus and Folkman, It is therefore necessary to alter the cognitions beliefs, perceptions and attributes that patients have about their health and illness which play a role in determining their behaviour.
He disputed the long-held assumption that only the biological factors of health and disease are worthy of study and practice.
At the time this seemed satisfactory but recent research in psychology and the social sciences has challenged this approach and sought to develop a new more extensive model of health that can be applied in clinical practice.
Psychological factors such as self-esteem and perceived control have been identified as potential markers to help increase health- promoting behaviours like exercise and reduction of over-consumption. Pain as a prototype.
This model can be used in medical schools to train doctors in the art of good communication, understanding and compassion. Hospital doctors should have clear guidelines about what health professional they should contact if they believe that a patient may benefit from psychological or social intervention.
An interesting area where this model is being used is in the psychiatric hospital where a multi- disciplinary team consisting of a consultant psychiatrist, junior doctor, psychologist, social worker and psychiatric nurse consider the patients problem firstly as a whole and then divide their resources.
Considering this model leads to the patient being interviewed as a person with an individual lifestyle and not simply as a patient with a disease which has deviated them from normal functioning. Good research will need to be continued to identify the health risks associated with different behaviours and social conditions.
Psychological factors like increasing risk behaviours smoking, large alcohol intakecoping mechanisms and predisposition to anxiety could be examined. For example, GPs and hospital doctors should be able to apply some psychological techniques themselves to intervene in the patients lifestyle to avoid them needing medical treatment given that there is an increased amount of training in these areas being offered in medical schools.
This data should then be brought to the attention of the Government to bring about changes at a political, economic and social level so we may seek to eliminate conditions like poverty, unemployment and loneliness.
Very often these situations produce adverse psychological and physiological changes and sometimes they are associated with a disease outcome. Since many high-risk behaviours are often associated with these adverse social conditions, it may only be after changes occur at a political level that the vicious cycle of social circumstances affecting psychological and medical circumstances will be broken.
With the Biopsychosocial model, stress can be examined from each of these perspectives. The model inherently places a lot of emphasis on the individuals control over their body and health and this may be difficult and confusing for the chronically ill or those who battle in vain with weight, smoking or drinking habits.
It is no longer sufficient that doctors feel that they only deal with broken bones; they must also seek to mend the mind.
He argued that psychological and social factors influence biological functioning and play a role in health and illness also. Social factors like loneliness, lack of participation in social activities like exercising, the effects of unemployment and the effects of working in an environment where long and unsociable working hours are the norm are examples of where interventions may be implemented.
At an individual level, families can exert a range of either positive or negative influences on the health status and psychosocial adjustment of patients.
Many of the modern illnesses such as heart disease and cancer have been found to have psychological and social components to their aetiology.
There are far-reaching implications of this model to the training of good doctors and for good medical practice. Introducing the Biopsychosocial Model for good medicine and good doctors Introducing the Biopsychosocial approach as the model for good medicine and good doctors.
The Biopsychosocial Model in Clinical Practice One of the primary criticisms of new theoretical models is that they may lack scientifically proved evidence that they can work.
Therefore it is no longer sufficient for clinicians to state that treatment is successful in terms of its effect on a specific biological illness but it is now also necessary to know whether the treatment gives significant improvement in the way in which a person lives.
Also junior doctors, having benefited from exposure to behavioural science should be able to apply some psychological techniques themselves to intervene in the patients lifestyle to reduce the likelihood of them needing medical treatment for conditions like coronary heart disease.
In fact a study conducted on stress and burnout in psychiatric nurses showed that the biggest factor in causation of burnout as measured on the Maslach Burnout Inventory MBI was not job-demands but high trait anxiety levels Mc Inerney, Thus the clinician will have many avenues to explore before they make their diagnosis and hopefully they will be able to provide preventative information to the patient about how they may adjust their lifestyle in order to have a better quality of life.
However, it has been found that it is Heath care models biosocial and biomedical difficult for individuals to give up risky behaviours and adopt more healthy lifestyles. This new theoretical model therefore has been developed in an attempt to improve on the disease approach and narrow view with respect to health and illness held by the medical model so that psychological and social factors of the individual can also be considered.
Different interventions for modifying risk behaviours and so incidence of disease can be carried out on an individual or small group basis using stress- management or relaxation techniques.
This is a more realistic model in light of the role lifestyles play in a society having entered the new millennium.
Cognitive-behavioural therapy, once exclusively used in the domain of clinical psychology has proved successful in dealing with illnesses that would previously have been viewed as requiring medical intervention e. There has been much discontentment with the medical model to the extent that Engel suggested that it had acquired the authority and tradition of dogma.
As a basis of meeting the WHO challenge proposed by this statement, medical professionals will need to be familiar with the research identifying the health risks associated with different behavioural and social conditions and not just the biological illness itself.The biomedical model of health focuses on purely biological factors and excludes psychological, environmental, and social influences.
It is considered to be the leading modern way for health care professionals to diagnose and treat a condition in most Western countries. What are the differences and similarities between biomedical and biopsychosocial models of health?
- Answered by a verified Health Professional. In spite of the traditional dominance of the biomedical model, the The Biopsychosocial Model of health and illness as proposed by Engel () implies that behaviours, thoughts and feelings may influence a The Biopsychosocial Model is a very important step in medical care as it broadens the scope with which health and illness can be.
Keywords: biomedical model, biomedical model of health This assignment looks at the Biomedical Model of Health, what it means, what its advantages and disadvantages are, and criticisms from other perspectives on health.
The Biomedical model of health (Also known as medical model) This model looks at people as if they are machines. The various body systems are seen as systems The biomedical model of illness and healing focuses on purely biological factors, and excludes psychological, environmental, and social influences.
This is considered to be the dominant, modern way for health care. Medicine's paradigm shift: An opportunity for psychology. By Dr. Suzanne Bennett Johnson, APA President Although George Engel proposed a new medical model — the biopsychosocial model — inU.S.
health care remained entrenched in the biomedical model until very recently. and the biomedical model has failed to .Download