Article 18 allowed Americans living or working in China to employ tutors to help them learn Chinese, a practice formerly forbidden by the Chinese Government. These treaty ports became key crossroads for Western and Chinese culture, as they were the first locations where foreigners and foreign trading operations could own land in China.
Farmers that had been producing food switched to tea or silk. The treaties of Nanking and Tientsin opened numerous ports in China, opening the country to foreign trade. Settling this financial problem eventually led to the First Opium War between Great Britain and China, from to After the wars China realized that the country could not continue to be so isolationist.
Also, look at the long-range economic impact of imperialism in China by tracing the nineteenth and twentieth century histories of tea, porcelain, sugar, tobacco, and textiles.
This being finished they all came out of the after-cabin and sat down to tiffinand the different officers seated themselves all round the table, making plenty of guests.
Many of the economic problems China faced later were either directly or indirectly traced to the opium trade. The population [of Canton] is perverse, presumptuous, turbulent, and altogether the most indocile and the worst people in China.
What had begun as a conflict of interests between English desire for profits from the trade in silk, porcelain, and tea and the Confucian ideal of self-sufficiency and exclusion of corrupting influences resulted in the partitioning of China by the Western powers including the ceding of Hong Kong to Great Britainhumiliating defeats on land and sea by technologically and logistically superior Western forces, and the traditional values of an entire culture undermined by Christian missionaries and rampant trading in Turkish and Indian opium.
He reportedly concluded, "If we continue to allow this trade to flourish, in a few dozen years we will find ourselves not only with no soldiers to resist the enemy, but also with no money to equip the army" quoted by Chesneaux et al.
Treaty Ports and Compradors By the mids, the tightly controlled authority China had administered over its trade began to diminish. The British had already discovered a great market in southern China for smuggled opium, and American traders soon also turned to opium to supplement their exports to China.
Finally, he ordered the port of Canton closed to all foreign merchants. Hull, March 18, ritish merchants were frustrated by Chinese trade laws and refused to cooperate with Chinese legal officials because of their routine use of torture.
Bythe Canton trade system was fading out, and a new era of trade emerged in the recently opened treaty ports. This agreement, the first of the "unequal treaties," opened China to the West and marked the beginning of Western exploitation of the nation. Research the long-term effects of the different foreigners active in China at this time.
Ordinary wars of conquest are to me far less wicked, than to go to war in order to maintain smuggling, and that smuggling consisting in the introduction of a demoralizing drug, which the government of China wishes to keep out, and which we, for the lucre of gain, want to introduce by force; and in this quarrel are going to burn and slay in the pride of our supposed superiority.
The government debated about whether to legalize the drug through a government monopoly like that on salt, hoping to barter Chinese goods in return for opium. The Opium War The second Opium War In the mids, while the Qing government was embroiled in trying to quell the Taiping Rebellion —64the British, seeking to extend their trading rights in China, found an excuse to renew hostilities.
Ironically, the Qing Government had fully supported the clauses on extraterritoriality and most-favored nation status in the first treaties in order to keep the foreigners in line.
The Chinese readily agreed in an effort to keep all foreigners on the same footing. In Junethe firm announced its new partners:After the end of the First Opium War in and subsequent Treaty of Nanking, additional ports were open including the newly formed British colony of hong Kong.
Bythe Canton trade system was fading out, and a new era of trade emerged in the recently opened treaty ports.
The Opium Wars were two wars in the midth century involving China and the British Empire over the British trade of opium and China's sovereignty. Then France secured concessions on the same terms as the British, in treaties of.
China lost the Opium Wars, and this was the first of many "unequal" treaties. Terms of the Treaty of Nanjing China had to open all ports to Britain, give Hong Kong (the best port) to Britain, pay for the destroyed Opium, and give Britain the Right of Extraterritoriality.
The economic, social, and political effects of the Opium Wars can still be seen today. The treaties of Nanking and Tientsin opened numerous ports in. first Opium War, the Chinese were forced to pay a huge indemnity of 20 million silver dollars to the victors.
12 million of this sum was for covering British war costs; three million was for covering debts to English merchants; and five million was compensation for the opium stocks Commissioner Lin had destroyed in These treaties.
The Treaty of Nanking (Nanjing) was a peace treaty which ended the First Opium War (–42) between the United Kingdom and the Qing dynasty of China on 29 August It was the first of what the Chinese later called the unequal mi-centre.com: Bilateral / Unequal.Download