Cloning tissues and organs falls under a different category that cloning human beings. At present, the use of this technique to create a child would be a premature experiment that would expose the fetus and the developing child to unacceptable risks.
It took attempts before an embryo was successful. The scientific and medical criteria used to evaluate the safety of reproductive cloning must be the potential morbidity and death of the woman carrying the clone as a fetus and of the newborn and the risk to women donating the eggs.
The resulting hybrid cells retain those mitochondrial structures which originally belonged to the egg. However, other scientists were critical — Dolly took tries to create, and other labs were unable to reproduce the results.
The debate over human cloning became further complicated in when researchers were able, for the first time, to isolate human embryonic stem cells. Indeed, our moral analysis of this matter leads us to conclude that this is not, as is sometimes implied, a merely temporary objection, easily removed by the improvement of technique.
In species that use the XY sex-determination systemthe offspring will always be female. There are laws and international conventions that attempt to uphold certain ethical principles and regulations concerning cloning. King, who used DNA from embryonic cells of the frog Rana pipiens to generate cloned tadpoles.
Admittedly, the same process somatic cell nuclear transfer that has already led to the development of human blastocysts in vitro may eventually lead to the birth of an infant who is genetically identical except for mitochondria to but one adult.
Cells and tissues derived from adult stem cells and returned to the patient from whom they were taken would not be subject at least in principle to immune rejection.
Further investigation of the resulting colonies must be required to confirm that cloning was successful.
The somatic cells could be used immediately or stored in the laboratory for later use. Even in the United States, cloning is currently applicable to horses in which the value of the progeny does not depend on registration with a breed association.
Dolly the sheep[ edit ] The taxidermied body of Dolly the sheep Dolly clone Dollya Finn-Dorset ewewas the first mammal to have been successfully cloned from an adult somatic cell. It is currently the subject of much debate around the world, involving a variety of ethical, religious, societal, scientific, and medical issues.
Human cloning would create duplication of humans, and the individuality of each human would be lost. Buying life reduce the value of it because we cannot respect things which we can get easily. Could cloning the family pet one day become a normal alternative to buying a new one?
Participants in any human cloning research efforts require full protection as human research participants, although it should be noted that, as with fetal surgery, this protection cannot be extended fully to the cloned fetus. Such cell populations can be differentiated in vitro into a number of different cell types, and are currently being studied intensely for their possible uses in regenerative medicine.
We have sought terminology that most accurately conveys the descriptive reality of the matter, in order that the moral arguments can then proceed on the merits. In addition, stem cells could be used for in vitro laboratory studies of normal and abnormal embryo development or for testing drugs to see if they are toxic or cause birth defects.For these legal reasons as well as ethical reasons, it's probable that the future of cloning will lie more in therapeutic cloning research than reproductive cloning.
The only difference between therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning is that in therapeutic cloning the embryo is never transferred into a female’s womb.
Likewise, research on cloning animals by somatic cell nuclear transfer does not raise the issues implicated in attempting to use this technique for human cloning, and its continuation should only be subject to existing regulations regarding the humane use of animals and review by institution-based animal protection committees.
Read chapter Executive Summary: Human reproductive cloning is an assisted reproductive technology that would be carried out with the goal of creating a ne.
New Developments or Research in Genetic Cloning: Summary Since genetic cloning is a very wide topic, the focus of my paper lies mainly on the new discoveries which might be beneficial to human beings. The focus of the first section of the paper is on.
Two commonly discussed types of theoretical human cloning are therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning. Therapeutic cloning would involve cloning cells from a human for use in medicine and transplants, and is an active area of research, but is not in medical practice anywhere in the world, as of An overview of information about cloning and embryonic stem cell research from the July Ethical Boundaries workshop.
Cloning/Embryonic Stem Cells.
Workshop Summary Agenda Additional Background Papers: Reproductive Genetic Testing.Download